Management & Strategy

4P in Marketing

By April 12, 2023No Comments

What are the 4P in marketing?

The 4Ps of marketing, also known as the marketing mix, are the four key elements of a marketing strategy. These four key elements in 4P are Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. 4P is a very powerful marketing framework, along with the 3C in marketing.

The concept of marketing mix originated in the 1940s and 1950s with marketing theorist Neil Borden. It was popularized by marketer E. Jerome McCarthy in his 1960 book “Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach.

The Product element refers to the physical or intangible item being sold, including its features, design, quality, packaging, and branding.

The Price element refers to the amount customers pay for the product or service, which is determined by factors such as production costs, competition, and consumer demand.

The Place element refers to the distribution channels used to make the product or service available to customers, including physical locations, online platforms, and third-party retailers.

The Promotion element refers to the various marketing tactics used to promote the product or service, including advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotions.

The 4Ps framework is useful for businesses to create and execute a comprehensive marketing strategy. By using the 4Ps, businesses can ensure they are targeting the right audience, delivering a product or service that meets customer needs, and creating a strong brand identity that resonates with customers. However, some marketers argue that the 4Ps framework is outdated and insufficient in today’s rapidly evolving digital landscape. They suggest adding additional Ps such as People, Process, and Physical evidence to better address the needs of modern businesses.

In this article, we’ll learn in detail each of the elements of 4P and go over real company examples.

4P of Marketing


In the 4P marketing mix, “Product” refers to what a company offers to customers. It encompasses the design, features, packaging, quality, and branding of the goods or services that a company provides.

A key aspect of developing a product is identifying the needs and wants of the target market. Companies must conduct market research to understand what customers are looking for, and then use that information to create products that will satisfy those needs.

Once a product is developed, companies must focus on branding and packaging to create a strong identity and appeal to their target audience. Branding helps differentiate a product from competitors and creates customer loyalty. Packaging, on the other hand, can affect the perception of the product’s quality and its appeal.

Companies also need to consider the product lifecycle, which includes introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. This helps businesses determine when to launch new products, when to discontinue old ones, and how to modify existing products to stay competitive in the market.


Price is one of the most important components of the 4P marketing mix. Setting the right price for a product or service can greatly impact its success. There are several key factors to consider when determining price.

  1. Cost of production: The cost of producing the product or service is a crucial factor to consider when setting the price. Companies must ensure that the price covers the cost of production while still generating a profit.
  2. Competitors’ prices: It is important to analyze competitors’ prices to determine a competitive price point. Companies can choose to price their products higher or lower than competitors, depending on factors like brand image and product differentiation.
  3. Customer value: The value that customers place on a product or service can impact its price. Companies must understand their target market and determine the maximum price that customers are willing to pay.
  4. Marketing strategy: The pricing strategy should align with the overall marketing strategy. For example, a company that focuses on a high-end, luxury image will likely set higher prices for its products.
  5. Discounts and promotions: Discounts and promotions can be used to attract customers and boost sales. Companies must carefully consider the impact of discounts and promotions on profit margins and overall revenue.
  6. Seasonal factors: Seasonal factors can impact pricing, with demand often fluctuating throughout the year. For example, prices for holiday products may be higher during the holiday season.

By taking these factors into account, companies can set a price that reflects the value of their product or service, while also remaining competitive in the market.


The “Place” element of the 4P marketing mix refers to how a company distributes its products to customers. This includes the physical locations where the products are sold, the channels used to reach customers, and the logistics involved in getting products to customers.

One important factor to consider when determining the “Place” element is the target market. For example, a company selling luxury products may choose to sell its products in high-end boutiques, while a company selling everyday products may choose to sell its products in grocery stores or convenience stores.

Another important factor is the distribution channels used to reach customers. Companies can choose to distribute their products through wholesalers, retailers, or even directly to customers through e-commerce. The chosen distribution channel can have a significant impact on the availability and accessibility of the product to customers.

Logistics is another important aspect of the “Place” element. Companies need to ensure that their products are delivered to customers in a timely and efficient manner. This involves managing inventory levels, transportation, and warehousing.

The rise of e-commerce has significantly impacted the “Place” element of the marketing mix. Companies can now sell their products directly to customers through online platforms, which has created new opportunities for reaching customers and expanding into new markets.

When considering the “Place” element, companies also need to take into account any legal or regulatory requirements related to distribution and sales of their products. For example, certain products may require special licenses or permits to sell in certain locations.


Promotion is the fourth and final element of the 4P marketing mix. It includes all the methods used to communicate and promote a product or service to potential customers.

Promotion involves various strategies such as advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct marketing.

Advertising is a paid form of promotion that can include print ads, online ads, radio and television commercials, billboards, and more. Sales promotion includes short-term incentives to boost sales, such as discounts, coupons, contests, and giveaways.

Public relations involves managing the company’s image and reputation through various means, such as press releases, sponsorships, and events. Personal selling involves a direct, one-on-one interaction between a salesperson and a potential customer, and is often used for high-value or complex products.

Direct marketing involves reaching out to potential customers directly through email, mail, or other channels. It can be highly targeted and personalized, making it an effective way to reach specific segments of the market.

The ultimate goal of promotion is to create awareness, generate interest, and motivate potential customers to take action, such as making a purchase or requesting more information.

A well-designed promotion strategy can help a company differentiate its products or services from the competition, build brand awareness and loyalty, and ultimately drive sales and revenue. However, if not executed properly, it can also be a waste of time and resources.

4P vs. 7P Marketing Mix

The 4P’s of marketing, as previously mentioned, are Product, Price, Place, and Promotion.

However, in recent years, three more elements have been added to the marketing mix, namely People, Process, and Physical Evidence. These additional three elements, together with 4P’s, are referred to as the 7P’s of marketing, and they help businesses to consider the overall customer experience. While the original 4P’s focus on creating the right product, at the right price, in the right place, and with the right promotional activities, the additional 3P’s allow for a more comprehensive approach to marketing.

The People element refers to the staff and employees who interact with customers and help to deliver the product or service.

The Process element focuses on the way in which the product or service is delivered to the customer and the steps involved in the overall experience.

Finally, Physical Evidence includes all of the tangible elements that customers experience when interacting with the product or service, such as atmosphere, store layout, and website design.

The 7P’s of marketing provide a more complete approach to marketing, by considering not just the product itself, but also the people involved, the process of delivery, and the overall customer experience.

4P Marketing Mix Example: Coca Cola

Coca Cola is a global beverage company with a diverse portfolio of products. Let’s take a closer look at its marketing mix.

Coca Cola 4P Example: Product

Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink that has been a household name for over a century. It is a classic product that has stood the test of time and remained relevant for generations. Coca-Cola has a wide variety of products, including Diet Coke, Coca-Cola Zero, Sprite, Fanta, and more. They are available in a variety of sizes, including cans, bottles, and even fountain drinks.

Coca-Cola invests heavily in product development to keep up with changing consumer preferences. In recent years, they have introduced new flavors, such as Cherry Coke, Vanilla Coke, and Orange Vanilla Coke, to cater to the evolving tastes of their customers. They also offer seasonal flavors, such as Coca-Cola Cinnamon during the holidays.

Coca-Cola’s branding is a key aspect of its product. The company’s iconic red and white logo is recognized around the world. The brand is associated with happiness, joy, and refreshment. Coca-Cola’s marketing campaigns are centered around the idea of sharing and bringing people together.

In terms of packaging, Coca-Cola offers a variety of options, including plastic bottles, aluminum cans, glass bottles, and more. They have also recently introduced a sleek, modern design for their aluminum cans, which has been well-received by consumers.

Here are our key takeaways. First, Coca Cola has a strong brand identity that is recognized globally. Marketers should focus on maintaining this recognition and using it to their advantage. Second, with increasing concerns about health and wellness, marketers should consider the impact of health and wellness trends on consumer behavior and tailor their product offerings accordingly. And lastly, Coca Cola has a long history and has successfully tapped into consumers’ nostalgia through marketing campaigns. Marketers should consider the value of nostalgia in building emotional connections with consumers.

Coca Cola 4P Example: Price

Price is a critical element of Coca Cola’s marketing mix strategy. The company offers its products at different price points to cater to different market segments. Coca Cola uses a value-based pricing strategy, which means that it prices its products based on the perceived value to the customer.

For example, in the United States, a 20-ounce bottle of Coca Cola costs about $1.79, while a 2-liter bottle costs around $1.99. The company also offers discounts on its products, such as buy-one-get-one-free offers, to increase sales and attract price-sensitive customers.

Coca Cola also uses skimming pricing strategy for its premium products such as Coca Cola Life and Coca Cola Zero Sugar. For instance, Coca Cola Life is priced higher than regular Coca Cola because it is positioned as a healthier alternative.

Moreover, Coca Cola employs geographic pricing strategy. The price of Coca Cola products varies across different regions based on factors such as competition, demand, and local economic conditions. In developing countries, Coca Cola products are often priced lower to appeal to price-sensitive consumers.

In addition to the above pricing strategies, Coca Cola also engages in dynamic pricing. For example, during the holiday season, the company may increase the price of its products due to higher demand. Alternatively, during off-peak periods, Coca Cola may lower its prices to stimulate sales.

Here are some key takeaways. First, understand the perceived value of the product to the target market and use it to set the price. Second, offer products at different price points to cater to different segments of the market. Third, consider the competitive landscape and local economic conditions when setting prices in different regions.

By applying these key takeaways, Coca Cola can continue to implement effective pricing strategies that attract and retain customers while achieving business objectives.

Coca Cola 4P Example: Place

Place is all about getting the right product to the right place at the right time. Coca Cola has an incredibly broad distribution network, and its products are available in nearly every corner of the globe. The company has more than 700,000 distribution points worldwide, including both large and small retailers, vending machines, restaurants, and more.

Coca Cola uses several strategies to ensure that its products are widely available. The company partners with local bottlers and distributors to ensure that its products are available in remote locations. It also has a strong relationship with major retailers, such as Walmart and Costco, to ensure that its products are prominently displayed and readily available in high-traffic areas.

Coca Cola has also invested heavily in technology to ensure that its products are always in stock. The company uses data analytics and machine learning algorithms to predict demand and optimize its supply chain. This helps the company to reduce waste and ensure that its products are always in stock, even during times of high demand.

One of Coca Cola’s key marketing strategies is to make its products available in as many places as possible. The company wants its products to be readily available, so that customers can purchase them whenever and wherever they want. By making its products widely available, Coca Cola can ensure that its products are top-of-mind for consumers, which can help to drive sales.

Overall, Coca Cola’s place strategy is focused on making its products as widely available as possible. By partnering with local distributors, investing in technology, and using a variety of promotional strategies, Coca Cola can ensure that its products are always in stock and top-of-mind for consumers.

Coca Cola 4P Example: Promotion

Promotion is a critical element of Coca Cola’s marketing mix, and the company leverages various strategies to create brand awareness, build customer loyalty, and foster an emotional connection with consumers.

To increase brand awareness, Coca Cola invests in advertising campaigns, using various channels such as television, billboards, and print media. For instance, the company’s “Taste the Feeling” campaign focused on creating a strong emotional appeal by connecting consumers’ experiences with the brand. In addition, Coca Cola partners with popular events and organizations, such as the Olympics and FIFA, to increase its reach and brand exposure.

To build customer loyalty, Coca Cola employs various tactics, such as personalized marketing, rewards programs, and sponsorships. The company’s personalized marketing efforts include customized packaging and unique promotional campaigns that engage consumers and create a sense of exclusivity. Coca Cola also runs rewards programs such as “Coca Cola Rewards” that incentivize customers to purchase more products and earn exclusive rewards.

Finally, Coca Cola aims to foster an emotional connection with consumers by creating memorable experiences that resonate with their emotions. For instance, the company’s “Share a Coke” campaign encouraged consumers to find and share bottles with their names on them, creating a personal and emotional connection with the brand. Coca Cola also leverages social media to connect with its audience and create a sense of community around its products.

Learn More

At Lumovest, we’re building the place where anyone can learn finance and investing in an affordable and easy-to-understand manner. Trust us, our courses are far more intuitive, visualized, logical and colloquial than your college professor-taught courses. Our courses are taught by Goldman Sachs investment banker who has worked on transactions worth over $50 billion. We designed our courses to prepare you to succeed in the world of high finance. You’ll learn how to conduct financial analysis exactly like how it’s done on Wall Street’s top firms. Upon completion of the courses, you will receive our Global Financial & Investment Analyst (GFIA) certification. You can sign up here.

By using Lumovest, you agree to our use of cookies, Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.